Signal-to-noise ratio

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Taken from wikipedia

Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is an electrical engineering concept defined as the ratio of a given transmitted signal to the background noise of the transmission medium. It is also known as D/U ratio, which stands for desired to undesired signal ratio.

Technical sense[edit]

Signal-to-noise ratio is an engineering term for the power ratio between a signal (meaningful information) and the background noise:

\mathrm{SNR} = {P_\mathrm{signal} \over P_\mathrm{noise}} = \left ( {A_\mathrm{signal} \over A_\mathrm{noise} } \right )^2

where P is average Power and A is RMS Amplitude. Both signal and noise power are measured within the system bandwidth.

Because many signals have a very wide dynamic range, SNRs are usually expressed in terms of the logarithmic decibel scale. In decibels, the SNR is 20 times the base-10 logarithm of the amplitude ratio, or 10 times the logarithm of the power ratio:

\mathrm{SNR (dB)} = 10 \log_{10} \left ( {P_\mathrm{signal} \over P_\mathrm{noise}} \right ) = 20 \log_{10} \left ( {A_\mathrm{signal} \over A_\mathrm{noise}} \right )

Electrical SNR and acoustics[edit]

Often the signals being compared are electromagnetic in nature, though it is also possible to apply the term to sound stimuli. Due to the definition of decibel, the SNR gives the same result independent of the type of signal which is evaluated (such as power, current, or voltage).

Signal-to-noise ratio is closely related to the concept of dynamic range, where dynamic range measures the ratio between noise and the greatest un-distorted signal on a channel. SNR measures the ratio between noise and an arbitrary signal on the channel, not necessarily the most powerful signal possible. Because of this, measuring signal-to-noise ratios requires the selection of a representative or reference signal. In audio engineering, this reference signal is usually a sine wave, sounding a tone, at a recognized and standardized magnitude, such as 1 kHz at +4 dBu (1.228 VRMS).

SNR is usually taken to indicate an average signal-to-noise ratio, as it is possible that (near) instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios will be considerably different. The concept can be understood as normalizing the noise level to 1 (0 dB) and measuring how far the signal 'stands out'. In general, higher signal to noise is better; the signal is 'cleaner'.